The predominant climate in most of the Northern Region of Brazil is the humid equatorial, presenting high temperatures, with averages above 25 ° C, abundant rainfall throughout the year, exceeding 2,000 to 3,000 mm per year, varying according to the movements of the masses. air.
Throughout the state of Tocantins and southeastern Pará, the tropical climate predominates, with two well-defined seasons, one rainy and one dry. In northwestern Pará and eastern Roraima, the semi-humid equatorial climate predominates, with short periods of drought and high temperatures throughout the year.
The vegetation of the northern region is closely linked to climate, soil and relief. In addition to the forest, which occupies most of the region, there are useful fields for cattle raising. The Amazon rainforest, which occupies 40% of the Brazilian territory, has three vegetation steps, based on altitude levels.
Explanatory scheme on vegetation in northern Brazil
- Firewood: part of the forest located on higher ground that is not affected by river flooding. In this region are mahogany, cedar, angelim, andiroba, guarana, caucho (plant that provides latex) and chestnut, a native tree that can reach 30 meters in height.
- Floodplain forest: part of the forest subject to periodic flooding. It is located between the terra firme and igapó forests, presenting a great diversity of species, predominantly trees that supply latex, maniçoba, maçaranduba, etc.
- Forest of igapó: part of the forest that is located on low ground, near the rivers, occupying the permanently flooded soil, where the royal victory, piassava etc. prevails.