Geography

Water and its environmental problems


Water, besides existing in large volume, is a renewable natural resource, is not over.

In its constant cycle, rainwater seeps into the ground, forms groundwater, flows into the rivers, evaporates and falls again in the form of rain.


Hydrologic cycle or water cycle on the planet

Civilization, however, alters the process of natural replenishment, releases pollutants, contaminating rivers and seas, and unbalances the water cycle. Considering, moreover, that water distribution is uneven and that water consumption is increasing, it is understood why water scarcity is one of the major global concerns today.

Problems related to the amount of water available in continental areas stem from irrigation and urban water supply projects that drain huge amounts of water from rivers, streams and groundwater, in volumes that far exceed natural replenishment, altering the freshwater reserves.


Illegal diversion of water compromises water supply

In addition, excessive drainage of groundwater may cause irreversible ground settlement, ie lowering the area as water is removed. On the coast, the freshwater reserve of a groundwater is replaced by salt water, unfit for human consumption.

In poor countries, deforestation in watershed areas, grassland and steep and high rainfall practices reduce the soil's ability to absorb rainwater, increasing the risk of flooding, raising river levels. and reducing available water supplies during the drier seasons.


Soil sealing: occurs due to paving and construction. Great cause of flooding, caused by increased runoff. It also contributes to decrease aquifer recharge by decreasing infiltration.

Conflicts over the domain of water resources have been manifesting severely in recent times. Most notable is the dispute between Syria and Israel for control of the Jordan River.


Jordan River, one of the most important water resources in the Middle East